Our roofing specialists at Grennan Construction believe that customer education is important when maintaining the investment of a new roof.
ABUTMENT- The sloping intersection of a roof surface against a vertical structure protruding through the roof.
ALGAE – Rooftop fungus that can leave dark stains on roofing.
AMERICAN METHOD – Application of giant individual shingles with the dimension parallel to the rake. Shingles are applied with a 3/4″ inch space between adjacent shingles in a course.
ANGLED FASTENERS – Roofing nails and staples driven into decks at angles not parallel to the deck.APA – American Plywood Association, who tests and sets standards for all varieties of plywood used in the U.S.
APRON FLASHING – Metal flashing used at chimney fronts.
ARMA – Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer’s Association, an organization of roofing manufacturers.
ASPHALT – A bituminous waterproofing agent used in various types of roofing materials.
ASPHALT CONCRETE PRIMER – Asphalt based primer used to prepare concrete and metal for asphalt sealant.
ASPHALT PLASTIC CEMENT – Asphalt based sealant material, meeting ASTM D4586 Type I or II. Used to seal and adhere roofing materials. Also called mastic, blackjack, roof tar, bull.
ASTM – The American Society for Testing and Materials, an organization that sets standards for a wide variety of materials, including roofing.
BACK-SURFACING – Granular material added to shingle’s back to assist in keeping separate during delivery and storage.
BASE FLASHING – That portion of the flashing attached to or resting on the deck to direct the flow of water onto the roof covering.
BLISTERING – Bubbles or pimples in roofing materials. Usually moisture related. In shingles blisters are either moisture under the material or moisture trapped inside the material.
BLOW-OFFS – When shingles are subjected to high winds, and are forced off a roof deck.
BRANDS – Airborne burning embers released from a fire.
BRIDGING – A method of re-roofing with metric-sized shingles.
BUCKLING – When a wrinkle or ripple affects shingles or their underlayments.
BUILT-UP ROOF – A flat or low-sloped roof consisting of multiple layers of asphalt and ply sheets.
BUNDLE – A package of shingles. There are 3, 4 or 5 bundles per square. A group of shingles held together, as by tying or wrapping.
BUTT EDGE – The lower edge of the shingle tabs.
CAULK – To fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to prevent leaks.
CEMENT – See Asphalt Roofing Cement.
CHALK LINE – A line made on the roof by snapping a taut string or cord dust with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.
CLASS “A” – The highest fire-resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Indicates roofing is able to withstand severe exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
CLASS “B” – Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing material is able to withstand moderate exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
CLASS “C” – Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing material is able to withstand light exposure to fire originating from sources outside the building.
CLOSED-CUT VALLEY – A shingle valley installation method where one roof plane’s shingles completely cover another. The top layer is cut to match the valley lines.
COATING – A layer of viscous asphalt applied to the base material into which granules or other surfacing is embedded.
COLLAR – Pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Also called a vent sleeve.
CONCEALED NAIL METHOD – Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the underlying course of roofing and covered by a cemented, overlapping course. Nails are not exposed to the weather.
CONDENSATION – The change of water from to vapor to liquid when warm, moisture-laden air comes in contact with a cold surface.
CORROSION – When rust, rot or age negatively affect roofing metals.
COUNTER-FLASHING – The metal or siding material that is installed over roof-top base flashing systems.
COURSE – A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.
COVERAGE – Amount of weather protection provided by the roofing material. Depends on number of layers of material between the exposed surface of the roofing and the deck; i.e. single coverage, double coverage, etc.
CRICKETS – A peaked water diverter installed behind chimneys and other large roof projections. Effectively diverts water around projections.
CUPPING – When shingles are improperly installed over an existing roof or are over-exposed, they form a curl or cup.
CUTOUT – The open portions of a strip shingle between the tabs.
DECK – The substrate over which roofing is applied. Usually plywood, wood boards, or planks.
DORMER – A raised roof extending out of a larger roof plane.
DOUBLE COVERAGE – Application of asphalt roofing such that the lapped portion is at least 2 inches wider than the exposed portion, resulting in two layers of roofing material over the deck.
DOWNSPOUT – A pipe for draining water from roof gutters. Also called a leader.
DRIP EDGE – A non-corrosive, non-staining material used along the eaves and rakes to allow water run-off to drip clear of underlying construction.
DUTCH LAP METHOD – Application of giant individual shingles with the long dimension parallel to the eaves.
EAVES – This is the lower, overhanging part of your roof. Typically where the gutter is located is called the eave line.
EAVES FLASHING – Additional layer of roofing material applied at the eaves to help prevent damage from water back-up.
EDGING STRIPS – Boards nailed along eaves and rakes after cutting back existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for re-roofing with asphalt shingles.
ELL – An extension of a building at right angles to its length.
END-LAPS – When installing rolled products (i.e., rolled roofing, underlayments) in roofing, the area where a roll ends on a roof, and is overlapped by the next section of rolled material.
EXPOSED NAIL METHOD – Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the cemented, overlapping course of roofing. Nails are exposed to the weather.
EXPOSURE – Vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain; “exposure to the weather.”
EXPOSURE I GRADE PLYWOOD – Type of plywood approved by the American Plywood Association for exterior use.
FASTENERS – Nails or staples used in securing roofing to the deck.
FEATHERING STRIPS – Tapered wood filler strips placed along the butts of old wood shingles to create a level surface when re-roofing over existing wood shingles to provide secure edges for re-roofing with asphalt.
FELT – Fibrous material saturated with asphalt and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper.
FHA – The Federal Housing Authority, who sets construction standards throughout the U.S.
FIBERGLASS MAT – fibers condensed into strong, resilient mats for use in roofing materials.
FIRE RATING – Measurement used by independent labs to determine resistance to fire.
FLANGE – Metal pan extending up or down a roof slope around flashing pieces. Usually at chimneys and plumbing vents.
FLASHING – Materials used to waterproof a roof around any projections through the roof deck.
FLASHING CEMENT – Sealant designed for use around flashing areas, typically thicker than plastic cement.
FM – Factory Mutual Research Corp.
FREE-TAB SHINGLES – Shingles that do not contain factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
GABLE – The upper portion of a sidewall that comes to a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof.
GABLE ROOF – A type of roof containing two sloping planes of the same pitch on each side of the ridge. Contains a gable at each end.
GAMBREL ROOF – A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Contains a gable at each end.
GRANULES – Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
GUTTER – The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.
HAND-SEALING – The method used to ensure sealing of shingles on very steep slopes, in high wind areas, and when installing in cold weather.
HEAD LAP – Shortest distance from the butt edge of an overlapping shingle to the upper edge of a shingle in the second course below. The triple coverage portion of the top lap of strip shingles.
HEX SHINGLES – Shingles that have the appearance of a hexagon after installation.
HIGH NAILING – When shingles are nailed or fastened above the manufacturer’s specified nail location.
HIP – The inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes. Runs from the ridge to the eaves.
HIP LEGS – The down-slope ridges on hip roofs.
HIP ROOF – A roof with four roof planes coming together at a peak and four separate hip legs.
HIP SHINGLES – Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
HORSEFEATHERS – See feathering strips.
ICE DAM – When a snow load melts on a roof and re-freezes at the eave areas. Ice dams force water to “back-up” a roof and cause leakage.
INTERLOCKING SHINGLES – Individual shingles that mechanically fasten to each other to provide wind resistance.
L FLASHING – Continuous metal flashing consisting of several feet of metal. Used at horizontal walls, bent to resemble an “L”.
LAMINATED SHINGLES – Shingles made from two separate pieces that are laminated together. Also called dimensional shingles and architectural shingles.
LAPS – The area where roll roofing or rolled underlayments overlap one another during application (see also side laps and end laps).
LOW SLOPES – Roof pitches less than 4/12 are considered low sloped roofs. Special installation practices must be used on roofs sloped 2/12-4/12.
MANSARD – A roof design with a nearly vertical roof plane that ties into a roof plane of less slope at its peak.
MANSARD ROOF – A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Contains no gables.
MASONRY PRIMER – An asphalt-based primer used to prepare masonry surfaces for bonding with other asphalt products.
MASTIC – Asphalt-based sealant. Applied with a trowel or by hand using rubber gloves. Other trades have other types of mastic products.
MATS – The general term for the base material of shingles and certain rolled products.
MINERAL STABILIZERS – Finely ground limestone, slate, trap-rock or other inert materials added to asphalt coatings for durability and increased resistance to fire and weathering.
MINERAL-SURFACED ROOFING – Asphalt shingles and roll roofing that are covered with granules.
MODIFIED BITUMEN– Rolled roofing membrane with polymer modified asphalt and either polyester or fiberglass reinforcement.
MORTAR – Mixture of sand, mortar, limestone and water used in bonding a chimney’s bricks together.
NAIL-GUIDE-LINE – Painted line on laminated shingles designed to aid in the proper placement of fasteners.
NAIL-POP – When a nail is not fully driven, it sits up off the roof deck.
NESTING – Installing a second layer of shingles aligning courses with the original roof to avoid shingle cupping.
NO-CUTOUT SHINGLES – Shingles consisting of a single, soled tab with no cutouts.
NON-VENEER PANEL – Any wood-based panel that does not contain veneer and carries an APA span rating, such as wafer board or oriented strand board.
NORMAL SLOPE APPLICATION – Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 4 inches and 21 inches per foot.
NRCA – The National Roofing Contractors Association; a respected national organization of roofing contractors.
OPEN VALLEY – Valley installation using metal down the valley center.
ORGANIC FELT – An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibers.
ORGANIC MAT – Material made from recycled wood pulp and paper.
ORGANIC SHINGLES – Shingles made from organic (paper) mats.
OSB – Oriented Strand Board; a decking made from wood chips and lamination glues.
OVER-DRIVEN – The term used for fasteners driven through roofing material with too much force, breaking the material.
OVER-EXPOSED – Installing shingle courses higher than their intended exposure.
OVERHANG – That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.
PALLETS – Tile and other materials when purchased in quantity will come on a pre-built wooden structure. This is a pallet and the place where a forklift would put the forks to lift the entire amount.
PITCH – ratio of the rise of the roof to the span of the roof.
POWER VENTS – Electrically powered fans used to move air from attics and structures.
PLASTIC CEMENT– Asphalt based sealant. Also called bull, mastic, tar, asphalt cement.
PLUMBING VENTS – Term used to describe plumbing pipes that project through a roof plane. Also called vent stacks.
PLY – The number of layers of roofing; i.e., one-ply, two-ply.
PREVAILING WIND – The most common direction of wind for a particular region.
QUICK-SETTING CEMENT – Asphalt-based cement used to adhere tabs of strip shingles to the course below. Also used to adhere roll-roofing laps applied by the concealed nail method.
RACKING – Method of installing shingles in a straight up the roof manner.
RAFTER – The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall.
RAKE – The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall from the eave to the ridge.
RAKE EDGE – The vertical edge of gable style roof planes.
RANDOM-TAB SHINGLES – Shingles on which tabs vary in size and exposure.
RELEASE FILM – The plastic sheet installed on the back of underlayments. Used for packaging and handling.
RELEASE TAPE – A plastic or paper strip that is applied to the back of self-sealing shingles. This strip prevents the shingles from sticking together in the bundles, and need not be removed for application.
RIDGE – The uppermost, horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
RIDGE SHINGLES — Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
RIGID VENT– Hard plastic ridge vent material.RISE – The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge.
ROLL ROOFING – Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.
ROOF LOUVERS – Rooftop rectangular shaped roof vents. Also called box vents, mushroom vents, airhawks, soldier vents.
ROOF PLANE – A roofing area defined by having four separate edges. One side of a gable, hip or mansard roof.
ROOFING TAPE – Saturated tape used with asphalt cements for flashing and patching asphalt roofing.
RUN – The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One-half the span.
SATURANT – Asphalt used to impregnate an organic felt base material.
SATURATED FELT – An asphalt-impregnated felt used as an underlayment between the deck and the roofing material.
SELF-SEALING STRIP OR SPOT – Factory-applied adhesive that bonds shingle courses together when exposed to the heat of the sun after application.
SELVAGE – That portion of roll roofing overlapped by the succeeding course to obtain double coverage.
SHADING – Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.
SHEATHING – Exterior grade boards used as a roof deck material.
SHED ROOF – A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.
SHINGLE COVERAGE – Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
SIDE-LAPS – The area on rolled material where one roll overlaps the rolled material beneath it. Also called selvage edge on rolled roofing.
SIDE-WALLS – Where a vertical roof plane meets a vertical wall. The sides of dormers etc.
SINGLE COVERAGE – Asphalt roofing that provides one layer of roofing material over the deck.
SLOPE – The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.
SMOOTH-SURFACED ROOFING – Roll roofing that is covered with ground talc or mica instead of granules.
SOFFIT – The finished underside of the eaves.
SOFFIT VENTILATION – Intake ventilation installed under the eaves, or at the roof edge.
SPAN – The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves.
SQUARE – A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.S
QUARE-TAB SHINGLES – Shingles on which tabs are all the same size and exposure.
STARTER STRIP – Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
STEEP SLOPE APPLICATION – Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.
STEP FLASHING – Flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.
STRIP SHINGLES – Asphalt shingles that are approximately three times as long as they are wide.
SELF-SEALANT – Sealant installed on shingles. After installation, heat and sun will activate sealant to seal the shingles to each other.
TAB – The bottom portion of traditional shingle separated by the shingle cut-outs.
TEAR-OFF – Removal of existing roofing materials down to the roof deck.
TELEGRAPHING – When shingles reflect the uneven surface beneath them. Shingles installed over buckled shingles may show some buckles.
THREE DIMENSIONAL SHINGLES – See laminated shingles.
TOP LAP – That portion of the roofing covered by the succeeding course after installation.
TRANSITIONS – When a roof plane ties into another roof plane that has a different pitch or slope.
UL – Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
UL LABEL – Label displayed on packaging to indicate the level of fire and/or wind resistance of asphalt roofing.
UNDER-DRIVEN – Term used to describe a fastener not fully driven flush to the shingles surface.
UNDERLAYMENTS – Asphalt based rolled materials designed to be installed under main roofing material, to serve as added protection.
VALLEYS – Area where two adjoining sloped roof planes intersect on a roof creating a “V” shaped depression.
VAPOR – Term used to describe moisture laden air.
VAPOR RETARDER – Any material used to prevent the passage of water vapor.
VENT – Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck, such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof or gable for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.
VENT SLEEVE – See collar.
VENTILATION – The term used in roofing for the passage of air from an enclosed space.
WARM WALL – The finished wall inside of a structure, used in roofing to determine how to install waterproof underlayments at eaves.
WARRANTY – The written promise to the owner of roofing materials for material related problems.
WATERPROOF UNDERLAYMENTS – Modified bitumen based roofing underlayments. Designed to seal on to wood decks and waterproof critical leak areas.
WOVEN VALLEYS – The method of installing valleys by laying one shingle over the other up the valley center.
After roof replacement
Before roof replacement
After roof replacement
After new roofing, siding, and gutters
Before new roofing, siding and gutters
After new gutters
After new addition, roofing, James Hardie siding, windows, and gutters
Before new addition, roofing, James Hardie siding, windows, and gutters
After new gutters
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